Exploring Responsible Tourism in Upper Myanmar

Mirella Loda, Ester Macrì

Abstract


The concept of “responsible tourism”, which has spread rapidly in recent years, evokes conscious tourist behavior so as to minimize negative impacts on destinations, from an environmental, economic and cultural point of view. While intuitively comprehensible, the concept is not easy to operationalize in empirical studies. Facing this difficulty, our contribution illustrates an attempt to operatively define the concept within the framework of the development of a sustainable destination plan for the Ancient Cities of Upper Myanmar (ACUM). The paper describes the index adopted to survey and measure responsible attitudes among tourists and the main results of the research. 


Keywords


Responsible Tourism; Myanmar; Asia; Survey; Tourists

Full Text:

PDF (English)

References


Adams, K. (1990). Cultural Commoditization in Tana Toraja, Indonesia. Cultural Survival Quarterly, 14(1), 31–33.

Byrne, D. (2008). Heritage as Social Action. In G. Fairclough, R. Harrison, J. Schofield, & J.H. Jameson (Eds), The Heritage Reader (pp. 149-173). London: Routledge.

Canestrini, D. (2001). Andare a quel paese. Vademecum del turista responsabile. Milano: Feltrinelli Traveller.

Chafe, Z. (2005). Consumer Demand and Operator Support for Socially and Environmentally Responsible Tourism. Retrieved on February, 2016 from http://www.ecotourism.org/webmodules/webarticlesnet/ articlefiles/62_consumer%20Demand%20For%20Responsible%20 Tourism.pdf

Corbetta, P. (1999). Metodologia e tecniche della ricerca sociale. Bologna: Il Mulino.

Davolio, M., & Meriani, C. (2011). Turismo responsabile. Che cos’è, come si fa. Milano: Touring Club Italiano/AITR.

European Commission. (2013). European Tourism Indicators System for Sustainable Management of Destinations (ETIS). Brussels.

GHF (2012). Asia’s heritage in peril. Global Heritage Fund. Retrieved on February, 2017 from http://www.globalheritagefund.org/images/uploads/docs/GHFAsiaHeritageinPeril050112_lowres.pdf

Goodwin, H. (2012). Mainstream Tourism and Sustainability. In G. Lipman, & al., Green Growth and Travelism Letters from Leaders (pp. 55-55), Oxford: Goodfellow.

Goodwin, H., & Francis J. (2003). Ethical and responsible tourism: consumer trends in the UK. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 9, 271– 285.

Hitchcock, M., King, V.T., & Parnwell, M. (2010). Heritage Tourism in South Asia, Copenhagen: Nias Press.

International Conference on Responsible Tourism in Destinations. (2002). The Cape Town Declaration, Cape Town. Retrieved on February 2015 from http://www.capetowndeclaration.org/read-the-declaration.

Lacy, J., & Douglass, W. (2002). Beyond Authenticity: The Meanings and Uses of Cultural Tourism. Tourist Studies, 2(1), 5–21.

Loda, M., & al. (2016). Sustainable Destination Plan for Ancient Cities of Upper Myanmar; Mandalay, Amarapura, Innwa, Sagaing, Mingun (2016-2021). Firenze: Polistampa.

MOHT. (2016). Myanmar Tourism Statistics. Nay Pyi Taw: Ministry of Hotel and Tourism, The Government of the Union of Myanmar.

MOHT. (2013). Myanmar Tourism Master Plan 2013-2020. Final Draft Report. Retrieved on March, 2015 from http://www.harrison-institute.org/Myanmar%20Tourism%20Master%20Plan%202013-2020.pdf.

MOHT. (2012). Dos and Don’ts for Tourists, How you can visit Myanmar Responsibly. Retrieved on March, 2015 from http://www.dosanddontsfortourists.com/images/DOS%20AND%20DONTS%20FOR%20TOURISTS%20BOOKLET%20(Desktop).pdf.

Mowforth, M., & Munt, I. (2008). Tourism and Sustainability: Development, Globalisation and New Tourism in the Third World (3rd Edition). London: Routledge.

Osgood, C.E., Suci, G.J., & Tannenbaum, P.H. (1957). The measurement of meaning. Urbana (IL): University of Illinois Press.

Piccolo, D. (1998). Statistica. Bologna: Il Mulino.

Sambri, C., & Pegan. G. (2007). La domanda di turismo responsabile: risultati di un’indagine esplorativa in Italia. University of Trieste.

Retrieved on February 2015 from

http://www.marketing-trends-congress.com/archives/2007/Materiali/Paper/It/Sambri_Pegan.pdf.

Tearfund (2000). A Tearfund Guide to Tourism: Don’t Forget your Ethics. London: Tearfund.

UNESCO (2010). Teaching And Learning For A Sustainable Future. Retrieved on February 2015 from http://www.unesco.org/education/tlsf/.

WCED, World Commission on Environment and Development (1987). Our Common Future. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

WCST, World Conference on Sustainable Tourism (1995). Charter for Sustainable Tourism. Lanzarote. Retrieved on February 2015 from

https://www.skal.org/sites/.../1015_peterclaesen_english.pdf.




DOI: 10.6092/issn.2036-5195/6770

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 Mirella Loda, Ester Macrì

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.