Almatourism - Journal of Tourism, Culture and Territorial Development <strong>Almatourism – ISSN 2036-5195</strong> is an electronic journal of the Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Center for Advanced Studies in Tourism (CAST), Rimini Campus. It is an innovative platform for study and research on culture and territorial development in the various disciplinary fields regarding tourism. Campus di Rimini - Alma Mater Studiorum - Università di Bologna en-US Almatourism - Journal of Tourism, Culture and Territorial Development 2036-5195 <p>Copyrights and publishing rights of all the texts on this journal belong to the respective authors without restrictions.</p><div><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a></div><p>This journal is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License</a> (<a href="">full legal code</a>). <br /> See also our <a href="/about/editorialPolicies#openAccessPolicy">Open Access Policy</a>.</p> Thematic Section Editorial-Controvertial Industries and Tourism: Interdisciplinary Perspectives during Coronavirus Pandemia <p>This Editorial has the objective to present the Thematic Section (TS), that derives from selected papers, that were presented during SIDREA International Workshop - May 19th 2020-2-5pm. It is structured in two sections. The first section is introducing the contents of the TS. The second section discusses the multifacted phenomenon of trust in business organizations with special reference to controversial industries including gambling and different trust profiles are (i.e., non-confidence, negative trust, and distrust, and the corresponding social categorizations).</p> Maria-Gabriella Baldarelli Emanuela Randon Laszlo Zsolnai Copyright (c) 2021 Maria-Gabriella Baldarelli, Emanuela Randon, Laszlo Zsolnai 2021-07-28 2021-07-28 12 23 83 91 10.6092/issn.2036-5195/13338 COVID 19 – The External Economic Shock: Changing the Business Models <p>This essay examines the issue of changing business models as a result of the Covid pandemic, with an attention on business models in the tourism sector. A similar change is historically tangible after a massive external shock to the economy. The terms "external shock to the economy" and "pandemic" as an external economic shock have been clarified. The paper examines significant historical cases and periods in which a general and radical change took place, and the renewal of the business environment and business models as a result of external shocks to the economy. The view is presented that the Covid pandemic as an external shock is a catalyst for a change of environment and change of business models, leading to the forefront in the practice of new business models.<br />The hypothesis of possible polar business models is considered, based on a summary of distant historical and recent experience in the specific business ecosystem and the algorithm of change. As a result of the study, it was concluded that the change, including in the business models including those in the tourism sector, will most likely require the implementation of self-created club beta versions and "ambidextrous" business models on the one hand and business models based on state entrepreneurship. Both polar business models are emerging from social trends.</p> Ninel Nesheva-Kiosseva Copyright (c) 2021 Ninel Nesheva-Kiosseva 2021-07-28 2021-07-28 12 23 93 123 10.6092/issn.2036-5195/13182 Health, Economics, Education and Stakeholders: some Ethical Insights for Public and Private Management and Social Accounting <p>Ethics, and especially related Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), was variously interpreted over time. It was sometimes considered in a limited, residual or unilateral way (philanthropy, environmental awareness, human rights, minorities, employees), not taking account of its essential link with the core business of a firm. The paper analyses those implications coming from stakeholder management, CSR and accountability considering a base of ethics in this Pandemic period.</p> Gianfranco Rusconi Copyright (c) 2021 Gianfranco Rusconi 2021-07-28 2021-07-28 12 23 125 137 10.6092/issn.2036-5195/12893 Gambling and (“Dark”) Flow. A holistic Study with Best Practice Cases on How to Minimize Harm <p>How to apply “minimize harm” as a guiding principle for regulating, redesigning, and running the gambling industry/business? The article looks at gambling through the flow concept using a four-dimensional frame of reference. The attempt is to analyze the problem of gambling from a scientific-technical, interpersonal, systemic and a spiritual-existential perspective. Two best-practice cases are used as illustrations; Norway’s national gambling monopoly operated by Norsk Tipping (NT), and the Italian city Pavia which was transformed from being “Italy’s Las Vegas” to return to the old charming city where gambling are strictly regulated. The third case illustrates the spiritual-existential dimension mirrored by a young American lawyer who became addicted to gambling, but finally sued the casinos that had ruined her life. Implications for further research are discussed, suggesting a move from “dark” flow to “green” flow.</p> Knut Ims Copyright (c) 2021 Knut Ims 2021-07-28 2021-07-28 12 23 139 174 10.6092/issn.2036-5195/12672 From Sport to Gambling in the SISAL Case: the Accounting and Accountability Role <p class="p2">Gambling industry is increasing all over the world and there are some controversial theories about relationships among legitimacy theory, accounting, and accountability in this Industry. The objective of the paper is to analyze the research case: SISAL ltd from its foundation to the present situation of activities, because it changed the activities from sport to gambling along with ownership structure modifications from 2016.</p> Maria-Gabriella Baldarelli Copyright (c) 2021 Maria-Gabriella Baldarelli 2021-07-28 2021-07-28 12 23 175 197 10.6092/issn.2036-5195/12674 Role of Creativity, Innovations, Digital and Cognitive Technologies for Marketing of Family, Small and Medium Tourism Businesses in Regional Economic Development During and After Coronavirus Pandemic <p>The article highlights challenges that face the tourism industry due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The analytical reports identified key negative trends and the impact of the tourism industry on socio-economic development indicators. The analysis of the historical facts of the development of crisis phenomena in the tourism sector provided an opportunity to state the fact of cyclical formation on the basis of biological threats in different regions of the world. In the context of this study, the main problems ofthe development of the tourism industry of Ukraine against the background of the pandemic and economic crisis are highlighted. Roadmap for overcoming the crisis presents innovative tools based on cognitive technologies such as neuromarketing, mobile marketing, blog marketing, event marketing, branding, as well as diversification of tourism entities, proposed to support small and medium-sized businesses operating in the tourism sector that have suffered the most from coronavirus measures. This article summarizes and analyses the successful examples of implementation of these tools for tourism enterprises in Ukraine and the world. It is concluded that the main condition to overcome the crisis, to develop successful tourism destinations, and to create sustainable development is the collaboration between businesses, community, and policymakers.</p> Yuriy Dyachenko Oleksandra Humenna Olena Zelenko Benoit Ngabonziza Copyright (c) 2021 Yuriy Dyachenko, Oleksandra Humenna, Olena Zelenko, Benoit Ngabonziza 2021-07-28 2021-07-28 12 23 199 219 10.6092/issn.2036-5195/12330 Cultural Capital and Cultural Heritage Education in UNESCO Sites ‘The Right Way’: Insights in Challenging Times <p>This work introduces two case studies relative to the the projects of cultural heritage preservation and development implemented in two famous Italian UNESCO sites, aimed at raising both awareness and increasing the sharing of cultural heritage value. The cases point out the effectiveness of the approaches suggested by both the European Community, and UNESCO, based on the involvement of multiple stakeholders, including young generations, in initiating the preservation and socio-economic regeneration of historic cities of outstanding universal value and inspiring good practices and coherent behaviours among different city users.</p> Mara Del Baldo Copyright (c) 2021 Mara Del Baldo 2021-07-28 2021-07-28 12 23 221 242 10.6092/issn.2036-5195/12366 Tools for the Development of Domestic Tourism in Eastern Ukraine Under Conditions of Post-Conflict Situation and Limitations of International and Internal Mobility <p>In the article it has been considered the issues of opportunities for the development of domestic tourism in the eastern territories of Ukraine, which have experienced problems due to the conflict and restrictions on international and domestic mobility due to the COVID-19 pandemic. It has been established that in the East of Ukraine there are been favorable conditions for the development of domestic rural tourism. It has been proposed to start the development of resort and recreational potential of the eastern territories, namely the creation of a resort town in Starobilsk, Luhansk region, which will specialize in providing medical rehabilitation services for adults, children, disabled people with musculoskeletal diseases, neurological, gynecological diseases, consequences of polytraumas. It has been noted about the need to develop a strategic program for the development of domestic tourism in the eastern territories. It has been established that taking into account the human development index is a necessary condition for the study of post-conflict development of territories. It has been stayted the most promising for the rapid development of the eastern territories is "green tourism". It has been proved that the main driving force of tourism development in post-conflict conditions and restrictions on mobility is to follow the rules of quarantine and search for alternative types of tourism, which are proposed in this paper. The proposals identified in this paper will be useful to many countries whose tourism industry has suffered heavy losses as a result of a pandemic or a complex conflict situation.</p> Halyna Zavarika Copyright (c) 2021 Halyna Zavarika 2021-07-28 2021-07-28 12 23 243 264 10.6092/issn.2036-5195/12274 Editorial Alessia Mariotti Copyright (c) 2021 Alessia Mariotti 2021-07-28 2021-07-28 12 23 I I 10.6092/issn.2036-5195/13364 Smart Tourism Destinations from the Perspective of Travelers with Disability <p>This study elaborates a theoretical structure regarding the drivers of well-being and the conditions under which it is achieved by travelers with disabilities (TwDs) in a smart tourism destination (STD). The grounded theory was applied in the research. The focused coding revealed 65 codes distributed among 14 categories. The correlation among them established the theoretical code with the dimensions of the STD, their consequences, the drivers of well-being, and the moderating conditions of smart tourism experiences (STEs). The results showed that the STD generates trust, safety and autonomy in the TwDs, supporting the overcoming of physical and social barriers and favoring their well-being. The theoretical structure exposed relations that can be tested in future researches and focused codes that support the elaboration of items that can be used to measure the categories. The proposed model provides managers and policymakers with information to better welcome TwDs.</p> Stela Cristina Hott Corrêa Marlusa de Sevilha Gosling Copyright (c) 2021 Stela Cristina Hott Corrêa, Marlusa de Sevilha Gosling 2021-07-28 2021-07-28 12 23 1 20 10.6092/issn.2036-5195/11472 Accommodation in Sustainable Hotels: Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior by Structural Equation Modeling <p>This research aims to analyze the determinants of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to explain the intention of the behavior of accommodation in sustainable hotels. The research had characteristics of exploratory, quantitative, and inferential research, through the application of a survey, using the instrument of Han et al. (2010), reaching a total sample of 383 responses of Brazilian tourists. Data analysis was performed using the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) technique estimated by Partial Least Squares (PLS). The results validated the perspectives of the TPB, with statistical significance for the relationships between the variables of attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control in relation to the intention to stay in sustainable hotels. Attitudinal beliefs had the greatest influence of the intention to stay in sustainable hotels. These results have theoretical and practical implications, from the validation of the TPB literature to the intention of behavior of consumption of sustainable services, and the indication of the main determinant of the intention of hosting, which can result in more accurate marketing strategies and better economic and social results.</p> Carolina Kremer Leonardo Flach Jonatas Dutra Sallaberry Copyright (c) 2021 Carolina Kremer, Leonardo Flach, Jonatas Dutra Sallaberry 2021-07-28 2021-07-28 12 23 21 39 10.6092/issn.2036-5195/10713 Institutional Quality and Tourism: Panel Causality Analysis in the Case of Mediterranean Countries <p>Using panel data methods this study examines the relationship between institutional quality and tourism in the case of 12 Mediterranean countries. Six indexes of the Worldwide Governance Indicators database and a general index calculated as their average were taken into consideration as institutional quality indicators. International tourism receipts per tourist and international tourism receipts as a percentage of export were used as tourism performance indicators. In analysis, the cross-sectional dependence was examined by Pesaran (2004) CD test and in accordance with the findings of this test, first and second-generation panel unit root tests were applied. Taking into consideration of the stationarity of the variables and non-homogeneity of the parameters, the relationship between institutional quality and international tourism revenues was examined by Dumitrescu and Hurlin (2012) heterogeneous panel causality test. Findings of the causality analysis strongly supported the causality toward international tourism receipts per tourist from institutional quality variables. Causality to the international tourism receipts as a percentage of export was supported for some of the institutional quality variables.</p> Seymur Ağazade Copyright (c) 2021 Seymur Ağazade 2021-07-28 2021-07-28 12 23 41 58 10.6092/issn.2036-5195/11873 Strategic Governance in The Marina Sector in the Context of Marine Tourism Cluster <p>This research aims to discuss strategic governance activities in the marina sector operating in Muğla Marine Tourism Cluster. Qualitative research methodology was preferred to identify the strategic governance practices from marina managers’ perspective. In-dept semi-structured interview was preffered in order to illuminate the case specific management approaches and applications. Six marina managers were interviewed, and the managers’ opinions were analysed by content analysis under five main themes namely, vision, participation, coordination, transparency, and efficiency. The findings revealed that the strategic governance practices are not strictly implemented because of the top-down-centralized approach which is preferred in the sector.</p> Nedim Yüzbaşıoğlu Oğuz Doğan Copyright (c) 2021 Nedim Yüzbaşıoğlu, Oğuz Doğan 2021-07-28 2021-07-28 12 23 59 82 10.6092/issn.2036-5195/10405