Marketing Mix and Destination Image, Case Study: Batu Caves as a Religious Destination


  • Tamil Arasi Paniandi Management and Science University
  • Ahmad R. Albattat Management and Science University
  • Maryam Bijami Senior lecturer, school of management, 11800 Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Penang, Malaysia.
  • Alfieyounna Alexander Management and Science University
  • Vinod Balekrisnan Management and Science University



Tourism Malaysia, Marketing, Marketing Mix, Destination Image, Batu Caves


Batu Caves become famous only after the limestone hills were recorded by colonial authorities in 1878. It was promoted as a place of worship and religious attraction. This study aims to find out the visitor satisfaction towards marketing mix (4P’s) and the destination image of Batu Caves. The data were derived from self–administered questionnaire consisted of structured questions related to the listed attributes. The survey was distributed during November 2016. The statistical package for social science (SPSS20) was used to analyze the data. Results showed that most of the respondents were satisfied with the Batu Caves marketing 4Ps, and had a favorable overall destination image and their visit was valuable. However, some of the tourists mentioned their negative feeling about the destination due to the maintenance activities and covering the lord Murugan Statue. Recommendations were made to increase the awareness and marketing campaign to attract more tourists, especially during the holy Thaipusam celebration.


Batu Caves., 2016, (September 24). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved September 24, 2016,


Banyai, M. (2009). The Image of Tourism Destinations: A Case of Dracula Tourism.

Borden, N. H. (1964). The concept of the marketing mix. Journal of advertising research, 4(2), 2-7.

Business dictionary (2016). Marketing Concept. Retrieved November 06, 2016, From Http://Www.Businessdictionary.Com/Definition/Marketing-Concept.Html

Chon, K. S. (1991). Tourism destination image modification process: Marketing implications. Tourism management, 12(1), 68-72.

Chon, K. S. (1992). Self-image/destination image congruity. Annals of Tourism Research, 19(2), 360-363.

Chon, K. S. (1990). The role of destination image in tourism: A review and discussion. The tourist review, 45(2), 2-9.

Echtner, C. M., & Ritchie, J. B. (1991). The meaning and measurement of destination image. Journal of tourism studies, 2(2), 2-12.

Gallarza, M. G., Saura, I. G., & Garcı́a, H. C. (2002). Destination image: Towards a conceptual framework. Annals of tourism research, 29(1), 56-78.

Gartner, W.C. (1993). Image formation process. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 2(2/3), 191-216.

Govers, R., Go, F. M., & Kumar, K. (2007). Promoting tourism destination image. Journal of Travel Research, 46(1), 15-23.

He, Y., & Day, J. (2011). Impact of Visitation on Destination Image: Examination of Chinese tourists visiting New York City.

Kasim, A. (2011). Balancing tourism and religious experience: Understanding devotees' perspectives on Thaipusam in Batu Caves, Selangor, Malaysia. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 20(3-4), 441-456.

Kotler, P. (2000). Marketing Management, 10th Ed., Upper Saddle River, N.J: Prentice-Hall.

Li, X., Petrick, J. F., & Zhou, Y. (2008). Towards a conceptual framework of tourists' destination knowledge and loyalty. Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism, 8(3), 79-96.

Martyn Shuttleworth., 2008. Quantitative Research Design. Retrieved Nov 03, 2016 From Explorable.Com: Https://Explorable.Com/Quantitative-Research-Design.

Maslow, A. H. (2000). Motivation and Personality. Pearson Education Asia.

McCarthy, E. J. (1960). Basic Marketing: A Managerial Approach. R.D. Irwin.

Mill, R. C., & Morrison, A. M. (2002). The Tourism System. Kendall/Hunt Pub, Fifth Edition.

Pearce, P. L. (1982). Perceived changes in holiday destinations. Annals of tourism research, 9(2), 145-164.

Raj, R. & Morpeth, N. D. (2007). Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage Festivals Management: An International Perspective. CABI Pub.

Rittichainuwat, B., Qu, H., & Brown, T. (2001). Thailand's international travel image: mostly favorable. The Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 42(2), 82-95.

Robin Nunkoo, Dogan Gursoy, Haywantee Ramkissoon., 2013. Developments in Hospitality Marketing and Management: Social Network Analysis and Research Themes. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management 22(3), 269-288.

Singh, I. (2004). Sikh Pilgrimage: a study of ambiguity, Sikh Spectrum, May 16, Available at (accessed March 9, 2016).

Stoicheff, B. P. & Canada, N. R. C. (2002). Gerhard Herzberg: An Illustrious Life in Science. NRC Press.

Swarbrooke, J., Horner, S. (2007). Consumer Behavior (Second Edition). London; Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Tasci, A. D., & Gartner, W. C. (2007). Destination image and its functional relationships. Journal of travel research, 45(4), 413-425.

Tasci, A. D., Gartner, W. C., & Tamer Cavusgil, S. (2007). Conceptualization and operationalization of destination image. Journal of hospitality & tourism research, 31(2), 194-223.

U.S. Department Of Commerce, Ita, Office Of Travel And Tourism Industries; Bureau Of Economic Analysis., 2009. “2009 Marketing Profile: China” Retrieved From Http://Www.Tinet.Ita.Doc.Gov/Outreachpages/Download_Data_Table/2009_China_Market_Profile.Pdf

U.S. Department Of Commerce, Ita, Office Of Travel And Tourism Industries., 2008. Www.Tourism.Gov.My/About-Us/About-Tourism-Malaysia

Wikipedia., 2016. Marketing. Retrieved October 17, 2016, From


Wikipedia., 2016. Tourism. Retrieved 14:30, October 17, 2016, From





How to Cite

Paniandi, T. A., Albattat, A. R., Bijami, M., Alexander, A., & Balekrisnan, V. (2018). Marketing Mix and Destination Image, Case Study: Batu Caves as a Religious Destination. Almatourism - Journal of Tourism, Culture and Territorial Development, 9(17), 165–186.



Articles and reports