Costs and benefits of touristic events: an application to Venice Carnival

Giovanni Santoro, Jérôme Massiani


In this paper, we review the costs and benefits for local authorities of holding the Venice Carnival. After reviewing the recent history of this event and the role of local authorities in revitalizing it, we analyze the various costs they incur for its organization. We subsequently compute the additional expenditures of tourists and daily trippers and investigate the distribution of this extra income into various beneficiaries. The overall benefit-costs balance proves strongly positive.


Cost Benefit Analysis; Hallmark Event; Destination Management

Full Text:

PDF (English)


Andereck K. L., Vogt C. A.,(2000), "The Relationship between Residents' Attitudes toward Tourism and Tourism Development Options", Journal of Travel Research, 39: 27-36.

Bressanello A., (2010), “Carnival in the Modern Age: 30 years of Carnival in Venezia 1980-2010”, Ed. StudioLT2.

Bujosa Bestard, A. & Rossello, J., (2007). Attitudes toward tourism and tourism congestion. Region et Developpement, 25, pagg.193–207. Available at: [Consulted octobre 17, 2013].

Cheng J.R., (1980), "Tourism: How Much is too Much? Lessons for Canmore from Banff", Canadian Geographer, 23(1): 72-80.

Haralambopoulos N., Pizan A., (1996), "Perceived Impacts of Tourism: The Case of Samos", Annals of Tourism Research, 23(3): 503-526.

Johnson J., Snepenger D., Akis S., 1994, "Residents' Perceptions of Tourism Development", Annals of Tourism Research, 21: 629-642.

London Research Deelopment Agency (2003), The economic impact of the Notting Hill Carnival.

Madrigal R., (1995), "Residents' Perceptions and the Role of Government", Annals of Tourism Research, 22: 86-102.

Mc Lain, (2000), Mardi Gras 2000: Its economic Impact, Louisiana Business Survey, Vol 31 n 2, Fall.

Pizam A., (1978), "Tourism's Impacts: The Social Costs to the Destination Community as Perceived by its Residents", Journal of Travel Research, 16(4): 8-12.

Smith M., Krannich R., (1998), "Tourism Dependence and Resident Attitudes", Annals of Tourism Research, 25(4): 783-801.

Tull Jo-anne, (2005), “Money Matters – Trinidad and Tobago Carnival 2005”, Presented at Reflections on Carnival 2005, Carnival Institute of Trinidad and Tobago, April 22nd 2005.

DOI: 10.6092/issn.2036-5195/4774


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2014 Giovanni Santoro, Jérôme Massiani

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.