Gambling and (“Dark”) Flow. A holistic Study with Best Practice Cases on How to Minimize Harm


  • Knut Ims Norvegian School of Economics (NHH)



Harm, Addiction, Aggressive marketing, Regulation, Dark flow


How to apply “minimize harm” as a guiding principle for regulating, redesigning, and running the gambling industry/business? The article looks at gambling through the flow concept using a four-dimensional frame of reference. The attempt is to analyze the problem of gambling from a scientific-technical, interpersonal, systemic and a spiritual-existential perspective. Two best-practice cases are used as illustrations; Norway’s national gambling monopoly operated by Norsk Tipping (NT), and the Italian city Pavia which was transformed from being “Italy’s Las Vegas” to return to the old charming city where gambling are strictly regulated. The third case illustrates the spiritual-existential dimension mirrored by a young American lawyer who became addicted to gambling, but finally sued the casinos that had ruined her life. Implications for further research are discussed, suggesting a move from “dark” flow to “green” flow.


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How to Cite

Ims, K. (2021). Gambling and (“Dark”) Flow. A holistic Study with Best Practice Cases on How to Minimize Harm. Almatourism - Journal of Tourism, Culture and Territorial Development, 12(23), 139–174.



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