Gambling and (“Dark”) Flow. A holistic Study with Best Practice Cases on How to Minimize Harm
Keywords:Harm, Addiction, Aggressive marketing, Regulation, Dark flow
How to apply “minimize harm” as a guiding principle for regulating, redesigning, and running the gambling industry/business? The article looks at gambling through the flow concept using a four-dimensional frame of reference. The attempt is to analyze the problem of gambling from a scientific-technical, interpersonal, systemic and a spiritual-existential perspective. Two best-practice cases are used as illustrations; Norway’s national gambling monopoly operated by Norsk Tipping (NT), and the Italian city Pavia which was transformed from being “Italy’s Las Vegas” to return to the old charming city where gambling are strictly regulated. The third case illustrates the spiritual-existential dimension mirrored by a young American lawyer who became addicted to gambling, but finally sued the casinos that had ruined her life. Implications for further research are discussed, suggesting a move from “dark” flow to “green” flow.
Auer, M., Reiestad, S.H., and Griffiths, M.D (2020). Global Limit Setting as a Responsible Gambling Tool, in International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 18, 14-26.
Bandura, A., Caprara, G-V., and Zsolnai, L. (2002). Corporate Transgressions, in Ethics in the Economy (ed. L. Zsolnai), , Oxford: Peter Lang.
Caillois, R.(1961). Man, Play and Games, Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, (Transl. from French by Meyer Barash).
Calvosa, P. (2017). Responsible Gambling Strategies for Internet Gambling: An Empirical Investigation into the Italian Gambling Market, in International Journal of Business and Management, 12(7), 17-35. DOI:10.5539/ijbm.v12n7p17.
CEO of Norsk Tipping (https://2018.norsk-tipping.no/en/the-year-2018/ceo-2018/.accessed 28.04.2020).
Cockerill, M. (2006). Thompson caught up in match fixing, The Sidney Morning Herald, April 26.
Cosgrave, J. F. (2010). Embedded Addiction: The Social Production of Gambling Knowledge and the Development of Gambling Markets. Canadian Journal of Sociology/Cahiers Canadiens de Sociologie 35 (1), 113-133.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1975). Beyond Boredom and Anxiety, Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow. The Psychology of Optimal Experience. N.Y:Harper & Row.
Dixon, M.J., Stange, M., Larche, C.J., Craydon, C., Fugelsang, J.A. & Harrigan, K. A. (2018). Dark Flow, Depression and Multiline Slot Machine Play, Journal of Gambling Studies. Vol.34, 73-84.
Downes, D. M., Davies, B. P., David, M.E., & Stone P. (1976). Gambling, work and leisure: a study across three areas. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Flyvbjerg, B. (2006). Five Misunderstandings About Case-Study Research. Qualitive Inquiry, 12 (2), 219-245.
Frissen, V., Lammes, S., de Lange M., de Mul, J., & Raessens, J. (2015). Homo ludens 2.0: Play, media, and identity in (eds.; Frissen, V., Lammes, S., de Lange M., de Mul, J., & Raessens, J) The Ludification of Digital Media Cultures. Amsterdam: Amsterdamity Press, Amsterdam.
Griffiths, M. (1993). Fruit machine gambling: The importance of structural characteristics. Journal of Gambling Studies, 9 (2), 101-120.
Gainsbury S., Parke. J., & Suhonen. N. (2013). Consumer attitudes towards Internet gambling: Perceptions of responsible gambling policies, consumer protection, and regulation of online gambling sites, Computers in Human Behavior, 29(1), 235-245.
Gainsbury, S., & Blaszczynski, A. (2017). How blockchain and cryptocurrency technology could revolutionize online gambling. Gaming Law Review, 21(7), 482-492.
Griffiths, M. D., & Wood, R. T. A. (2008). Responsible gaming and best practice: How can academics help? Casino and Gaming International, 4(1), 107–112.
Hanss, D., Mentzoni, R.A., Griffiths, M.D., & Pallesen, S. (2015). The impact of gambling advertising: Problem gamblers report stronger impacts on involvement, knowledge, and awareness than recreational gamblers. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 29, 483-491.
Hing, N., Russell, A., Rockloff, M., Browne, M., Langham, E., Li, E., Lole, L., Greer, N., Thomas, A., Jenkinson, R., Rawat, V., Thorne, H.(2018). Effects of wagering marketing on vulnerable adults, Victorian Responsible Gambling Foundation, Melbourne file:///C:/Users/s1146/Downloads/Effects-of-wagering-marketing-on-vulnerable-adults.pdf (accessed 2020 3 May).
Huizinga, J. (1938/1955). Homo Ludens. A study of the play element in culture. 1955. Boston: Backer Press.
Ims, K. J. & Zsolnai. L. (2006). Shallow Success and Deep Failure. Business within Limits- Deep Ecology and Buddhist Economics (eds. L. Zsolnai & K. J. Ims) Oxford: Peter Lang.
Jewell, S. & Reade, J. J. (2020). On fixing international cricket matches. Journal of Gambling Business & Economics, 13(2), 37-82.
Kjetsaa, G. (1985). Fjodor Dostojevskij – et dikterliv. (in English Fjodor Dostojevskij – the life of a playwriter). Oslo: Gyldendal Norsk Forlag.
Lam, C. S. (2018). Why has Macao attracted the world-record gaming revenue? Journal of Gambling Business & Economics, 12(2), 25-35.
Lipman-Blumen, J. (1999). Hot groups. New York: Oxford University Press.
Løvoll, H. S. (2016a). Inside the Outdoor Experience. On the distinction between pleasant and interesting feelings and their implication in the motivational process. PhD dissertation, University of Bergen.
Løvoll, H. S. & Vittersø, J. (2014). Can Balance be Boring? A Critique of the “Challenges Should match Skills” Hypotheses in Flow Theory. Social Indicators Research, 117-136. doi:10.1007/s11205-012-0211-9.
Løvoll, H. S., Vittersø, J., Wold, B. (2016b). Experiencing the outdoors: peak episodes are interesting but the memories are pleasant. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, 1-16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14729679.2015.1122541
Matthews, N., Farnsworth, B. and Griffiths, M.D. (2009). A Pilot Study of Problem Gambling among Student Online Gamblers: Mood States as Predictors of Problematic Behavior. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 12(6), Published Online: 7 Dec 2009 https://doi.org/10.1089/cpb.2009.0050 accessed 1.05.2020
Mitroff, I. (1998). Smart Thinking for Crazy times: The Art of Solving the Right Problems. San Francisco, CA: Berett-Koehler.
Nakamura, J. & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2002). The Concept of Flow in Handbook of Positive Phycology (eds. C.R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez) Oxford: Oxford University Press.
National Gambling Impact Study Commission 1999, Final report, June.
Newall, P W. S., Moodie, C. & Reith, G. & Stead, M. & Critchlow, N. & Amber Morgan, A. & Dobbie, F. (2019). Gambling Marketing from 2014 to 2018: a Literature Review, Current Addiction Reports (2019) 6, 49–56. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40429-019-00239-1
Norsk Tippings Annual Report 2018.
Pallesen, S., Mentzoni, R. A., Torsheim, T., Erevik, E., Molde, H., & Morken, A. M. (2020). Omfang av penge- og dataspillproblemer i Norge 2019. Bergen: Universitetet i Bergen.
Partington, S., Partington, E., and Olivier, S. (2009). The Dark Side of Flow: A Qualitative Study of Dependence in Big Wave Surfing. The Sport Psychologist, 23, 170-185.
Pinhas, N. D., M.D., Lowengrub, K., M.D., Gonopolski, Y., M.D., Musin, E. M.D., and Kotler, M., M.D.(2006). Pathological Gambling: A Review of Phenomenological Models and Treatment Modalities for an Underrecognized Psychiatric Disorder. Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry. 8(6), 334–339. doi:10.4088/pcc.v08n0603
Ricketts, T. and Macaskill, A. (2009) Gambling as emotion management: developing a grounded theory of problem gambling. Addiction Research & Theory, 11(6). https://doi.org/10.1080/1606635031000062074
Schull, N. D. (2005). Digital Gambling: The Coincidence of Desire and Design. ANNALS, AAPSS, 597, January, 65–81.
Schull, N. D. (2012). Addiction by Design. Machine Gambling in Las Vegas. Princeton and Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Shalin, D. N. (2018). Erving Goffman, Fateful Action, and the Las Vegas Gambling Scene. UNLV Gaming Research & Review Journal, 20(1), 1-38.
Seligman, M. E. P (2011). Flourish. A Visionary New understanding of Happiness and Well-being, Sidney: William Heinamann. Siu Lam, C. (2018). Why Has Macao Attracted the World-Record Gaming Revenue? The Journal of Gambling Business and Economics, 12(2), 25-35.
Vaughan W. L., Paton, D. & Garrett, T. A. (2020). Taxing gambling machines to enhance tourism. Journal of Gambling Business & Economics, 2020, 13(2), 83-90.
Wang, W (2018). Addiction by Design: Using Netnography for User Experiences in Female Online Gambling Game. International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction, 34(8).
Wenz, M. (2014). Casinos, Gambling, and Economic Development: An Introduction to the Special Issue, Growth and Change, 45(1), 1–4, DOI: 10.1111/grow.12037
Wood, R. T. A., & Griffiths, M. D. (2010). Social responsibility in online gambling: voluntary limit setting. World Online Gambling Law Report, 9(11), 10–11.
Young, K. (2009). Understanding Online Gaming Addiction and Treatment Issues for Adolescents, The American Journal of Family Therapy, 37: 5, 355-372, https://doi.org/10.1080/01926180902942191
Zsolnai, L. (2011). Ethics of Systems Thinking. in Responsibility, Deep Ecology & the Self. (Eds. O. Jakobsen and LK. Pedersen). Oslo: Forlag.
Zsolnai, L. (2020). European SPES Newsletter, May 2020.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Knut Ims
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.