Typology of Inbound Tourists Who Visited Tehran Grand Bazaar Using Cluster Analysis: Introducing New Combining Dimensional Base to Realize Actual Behavior

Mohammad Nematpour, Mohammad Ghaffari


Considering the importance of destination market segmentation as an influential marketing effort for identifying and understanding segments’ psychological characteristics, the present study investigates the differences of inbound visitors' who attend to the grand bazaar of Tehran city. Factor analysis of the data extracted fifteen motivation and lifestyle factors, which the process was perfect by using cluster analysis. The findings indicated four types of inbound visitors: ‘Ideal-sense seekers’, ‘Special aspiring visitors’, ‘Middle want vacationers’, ‘Principled behavior enthusiasts’. A chi-square test was applied to compare four groups for independence analysis based on the types as well as the visitors' socio-demographic profiles. The socio-demographic profiles of respondents indicated statistically significant differences between the four clusters in terms of gender, age, travel companions, and previous trips to Tehran grand bazaar. Since the motivations and lifestyle would potentially influence their decision-making style in particular holiday destination and its related products and services, the study investigated the distribution of the decision-making style dimensions to every classified segment to understanding the decision-making styles of groups. Combining motivation and lifestyle dimensions in the form of segmentation analysis allows researchers and managers to identify specific types of tourists groups for targeted marketing campaigns specifically directed promotion programs in the context of cultural tourism.


Tourism market segmentation; Lifestyle; Motivation; Decision-making style; Cluster analysis

Full Text:

PDF (English)


Agrusa, J., Lema, J. D., Kim, S. S., & Botto, T. (2009). The impact of consumer behavior and service perceptions of a major sports tourism event. Asia Pacific Journal of Research, 14 (3), 267-277.

Aguas, P., Costa, J., & Rita, P. (2000). A tourist market portfolio for Portugal. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 12 (7), 394–400.

Albayrak, T., & Caber, M. (2018). A motivation-based segmentation of holiday tourists participating in whitewater rafting. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, Vol. 9, pp. 64-79.

Bideci, M., & Albayrak, T. (2016). Motivations of the Russian and German tourists visiting pilgrimage site of Saint Nicholas Church, Tourism Management Perspectives, 18, 10–13.

Anic, I.-D., Rajh, E., Bevanda, A., (2012). Decision-making styles of young consumers in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Young Consum.: Insight Ideas Respons. Mark, 13 (1), 86–98.

Bansal, H., & Eiselt, H. (2004). Exploratory research of tourist motivations and planning. Tourism Management, 25(3), 387–396.

Beane, T. T., & Ennis, D. M. (1987). Market segmentation: a review. European Journal of Marketing, 21(5), 20-42.

Beerli, A., & Martin, J. D. (2004). Tourists’ characteristics and the perceived image of tourist destinations: A quantitative analysis—a case study of Lanzarote, Spain. Tourism Management, 25(5), 623–636.

Bieger. T., & Laesser. C. (2002). Market segmentation by motivation: the case of Switzerland. Journal of Travel Research, 41, 68–76.

Bigne, J, & Andreu, L. (2004). Emotions in segmentation: an empirical study. Annals of Tourism Research, 31(3), 682–96.

Canabal, M., (2002). Decision making styles of young south Indian consumers: an exploratory study. Coll. Stud. J. 36(1), 1–12.

Cha, S., McCleary, M., & Uysal, M. (1995). Travel motivations of Japanese overseas travelers: a factor-cluster segmentation approach. Journal of Travel Research, 33(2), 33–39.

Cohen, E. (1974). Who is a tourist? A conceptual clarification. Sociological Review, 6, 408–424.

Crask, M. R. (1981). Segmenting the vacationer market: identifying the vacation preferences, demographics, and magazine readership of each group. Journal of Travel Research, 29(3), 29–34.

Crompton, J. L. (1979). Motivation for pleasure vacation. Annals of Tourism Research, 6, 408–424.

Dolnicar, S., Lazarevski, K., & Yanamandram, V. (2013). Quality of life and tourism: A conceptual framework and novel segmentation base, Journal of Business Research, 66, 724–729.

Dolnicar, S. (2008). Market segmentation in tourism: Managing tourism firms. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 62-152.

Dolnicar, S. (2008). Market segmentation in tourism. In Tkaczynski, A., Rundle-Thiele, Sh. R., and Beaumont, B. (2009). Segmentation: A tourism stakeholder view, Tourism Management, 30, 169–175.

Dolnicar, S., & Huybers, T. (2007). Different tourists — different perceptions of different places: accounting for tourists' perceptual heterogeneity in destination image measurement. Tourism Analysis, 12(5/6), 447–61.

Durvasula, S., & Lysonski, S., (1993). Cross-cultural generalizability of a scale for profiling consumers’ decision-making styles. Journal of Consumer affairs, 27(1), 55–65.

Eusebio, C., Carneiro, M. J., Kastenholz, E., Figueiredo, E., & Soares da Silva, D. (2017). Who is consuming the countryside? An activity-based segmentation analysis of the domestic rural tourism market in Portugal, Journal of Hospitality, and Tourism Management, 31, 197-210.

Everett, J. E. (1983). Factor comparability as a means of determining the number of factors and their rotation. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 18, 197–218.

Formica, S., & Uysal, M. (1998). Market segmentation of an international cultural historic event in Italy. Journal of Travel Research, 36(4), 16–24.

Frew, E., & Shaw, R. (1999). The relationship between personality, gender, and tourism behavior. Tourism Management, 20 (2), 193–202.

Frochot, I. (2005). A benefit segmentation of tourists in rural areas: a Scottish perspective. Tourism Management, 26(3), 335–346.

Fodness, D. (1994). Measuring tourist motivation. Annals of Tourism Research, 21(3), 555–581.

Fernández, A. M. G., Blanco, M. C., & Santos, C. R. (2006). Progress in Tourism Marketing: Motivations and Lifestyle: Segmentation Using the Construct A.I.O, 1eth, Elsevier Ltd, 147-160.

Fuller, J., & Matzler, K. (2008). Customer delight and market segmentation: An application of the three-factor theory of customer satisfaction on life style groups. Tourism Management, 29, 116–126.

Kotler, P., Bowen, J. T., & Makens, J. C. (2010). Marketing for hospitality and tourism (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Geistfeld, L.V., (1977). Consumer decision-making: the technical efficiency approach. Journal of Consumer Research, 4(1), 48–56.

Getz, D. (2007). Event studies: Theory, research and policy for planned events. Oxford, UK: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Gitelson, R. J., & Kerstetter, D. L. (1990). The relationship between socio-demographic variables, benefit sought, and subsequent vacation behavior: a case study. Journal of Travel Research, 28(4), 24–29.

Goeldner, C. R., & Ritchie, J. R. (2003). Tourism: principles, practices, philosophies. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Hiu, A.S.Y., Siu, N.Y.M., Wang, C.C.L., Chang, L.M.K., (2001). An investigation of decision-making styles of consumers in China. Journal of Consumer Affairs 35(2), 326–345.

Hsu, C., & Crotts, J. (2006). Segmenting mainland Chinese residents based on experience, intention, and desire to visit Hong Kong. International Journal of Tourism Research, 8(4), 87-279.

Hudson, S., & Ritchie, B. (2002). Understanding the domestic market using cluster analysis: a case study of the marketing efforts of Travel Alberta. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 8(3), 263–276.

Iso-Ahola, S. E. (1982). Towards a social psychology theory of tourism motivation. Annals of Tourism Research, 9, 256–262.

Jang, S., & Wu, C.-M. E. (2006). Seniors’ travel motivation and the influential factors: an examination of Taiwanese seniors. Tourism Management, 27, 306–316.

Jeng, J., and D. Fesenmaier (2002). Conceptualizing the travel decision-making hierarchy: A review of recent developments. Tourism Analysis, 7, 15-32.

Juaneda, C., & Sastre, F. (1999). Balearic Islands tourism: a case study in demographic segmentation. Tourism Management, 20(4), 52–549.

Kim, D., Lehto, X., & Morrison, A. (2007). Gender differences in online travel information search: implications for marketing communications on the internet. Tourism Management, 28(2), 33–423.

Kim M.-K. (2005). Determinants of rural tourism and modeling rural tourism demand in Korea. Michigan State University unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, East Lancing, MI: Michigan State University.

Kim, S., Crompton, J. L., & Botha, C. (2000). Responding to competition: a strategy for Sun/Lost City, South Africa. Tourism Management, 21, 33–41.

Kim, S., & Lee, C. (2002). Push and pull relationships. Annals of Tourism Research, 29(1), 257–260.

Kozak, N., & Kayar, C. H. (2009). Visitors’ objectives for trade exhibition attendance: a case study of the East Mediterranean International Tourism and Travel exhibition (EMITT). Event Management, 12(3/4), 133-141.

Konu, H., Laukkanen, T., & Komppula, R. (2011). Using ski destination choice criteria to segment, Finnish ski resort customers. Tourism Management, 32, 1096–1105.

Kotler, P., Bowen, J. T., & Makens, J. C. (2010). Marketing for hospitality and tourism (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Kotler, P. (1980). Principles of marketing. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Lee, Ch. K., Lee, Y. K., & Wicks, B. E. (2004). Segmentation of festival motivation by nationality and satisfaction, Tourism Management, 25, 61–70.

Lee, S. H., & Sparks, B. (2007). Cultural influences on travel lifestyle: A comparison of Korean Australians and Koreans in Korea. Tourism Management, 28, 505–518.

Leo, C., Bennett, R., & Härtel, C.E., (2005). Cross-cultural differences in consumer decision-making styles. Cross-Cultural Management: Int. J. 12(3), 32–62.

Loker-Murphy, L., & Perdue, R. (1992). A benefit-based segmentation of a nonresident summer travel market. Journal of Travel Research, 31(2), 30–35.

Laws, E., Scott, N., & Parfitt, N. (2002). Synergies in destination management: a case study and conceptualization. International Journal of Tourism Research, 4(10), 39–55.

Lundberg, D. E. (1971). Why tourists travel. Cornell HRA Quarterly, February 75–81.

McDonald, M., & Dunbar, I. (2004). Market Segmentation: How to Do it, How to Profit from it. Butterworth-Heinemann.

Ministry of Housing and Urban Development. (2009). Persian Bazaars; An Attempt To Document Traditional Market In Iran. Tehran: Jihad Daneshgahi Publication. (In Persian)

Mohr, K., Backman, K. F., Gahan, L. W., & Backman, S. J. (1993). An investigation of festival motivations and event satisfaction by visitor type. Festival Management & Event Tourism, 1(3), 89-97.

Molera, L., & Albaladejo, I. (2007). Profiling segments of tourists in rural areas of South-Eastern Spain. Tourism Management, 28(3), 67-757.

Muller, T. (1991). Using personal values to define segments in an international tourism market. International Marketing Review, 8(1), 57–70.

Nayeem, T., and Casidy, R. (2015). Australian consumers’ decision-making styles for everyday products. Australasian Marketing Journal, 23, 67–74.

Oh, H., Uysal, M., & Weaver, P. (1995). Product bundles and market segments based on travel motivations: a canonical correlation. Annals of Tourism Research, 6, 195–197.

Park, D. B., & Yoon, Y. Sh. Segmentation by motivation in rural tourism: A Korean case study, Tourism Management, 30, 99–108.

Park, K. S., Reisinger, Y., & Park, C.-S. (2009). Visitors’ Motivation for attending theme parks in Orlando, Colorado. Event Management, 13(2), 83-101.

Park, K.-S., Reisinger, Y., & Kang, H.-J. (2008). Visitors’ motivation for attending the South Beach Wine and Food Festival, Miami Beach, Florida. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 25(20), 161-181.

Pearce, D. G. (1996). Analyzing the demand for urban tourism: issues and examples from Paris. Tourism Analysis, 1, 5–18.

Perdue, R. (1996). Target market selection and marketing strategy: the Colorado downhill skiing industry. Journal of Travel Research, 34(4), 39–46.

Plummer, J. T. (1974). The concept and application of life style segmentation. Journal of Marketing, 38, 33–37.

Prentice, R., & Andersen, V. (2003). Festival as a creative destination. Annals of Tourism Research, 30(1), 7-30.

Rahnamayei, M., Maleknia, M., & Jahanian, M. (2011). The role of cultural and historical axes of the 12th region in the development of tourism in Tehran, Journal of New approaches in human geography, 3(4), 83-101. (In persian).

Rezaei, S. (2015). Segmenting consumer decision-making styles (CDMS) toward marketing practice: A partial least squares (PLS) path modeling approach, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 22, 1-15.

Ritchie, J. R. B., & Crouch, G. I. (2003). The competitive destination: A sustainable tourism perspective. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Schiffman, L. G., & Kanuk, L. L. (1978). Consumer behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Schul, P., & Crompton, J. L. (1983). Search behavior of international vacationers: Travel specific lifestyles and socio-demographic variables. Journal of Travel Research, 22(2), 25–31.

Scott, N., & Parfitt, N. (2005) Lifestyle Segmentation in Tourism and Leisure, Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism, 5(2-4), 121-139.

Shoemaker. S. (2000). Segmenting the mature market: 10 years later. Journal of Travel Research, 39(1), 11–26.

Sinkovics, R.R., ‘Mink'Leelapanyalert, K., & Yamin, M., (2010). A comparative examination of consumer decision styles in Austria. Journal of Marketing Management, 26(11/12), 1021–1036.

Sirakaya, E., McLellan, R. W., & Uysal, M. (1996). Modeling vacation destinations decisions: a behavioral approach. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 5(1/2), 57–75.

Smith, W.R., (1956). Product differentiation and market segmentation as alternative marketing strategies. Journal of Marketing, 3–8.

Sproles, G.B., & Kendall, E.L., (1986). A methodology for profiling consumers' decision-marking styles. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 20(2), 827–835.

Srihadi. T. F.. Hartoyo-Sukandar. D., & Soehadi. A. W. (2016). Segmentation of the tourism market for Jakarta: Classification of foreign visitors' lifestyle typologies. Tourism Management Perspectives, 19, 32–39.

Taylor, A., & Prideaux, B. (2008). Profiling four-wheel drive tourism markets for desert Australia. Journal of Vacation Marketing. 14(1), 71–86.

Tkaczynski, A., Rundle-Thiele, Sh. R., & Beaumont, B. (2009). Segmentation: A tourism stakeholder view, Tourism Management, 30, 169–175.

Tkaczynski, A., Rundle-Thiele, Sh., Beaumont, N. (2009). Destination Segmentation: A Recommended Two-Step Approach, Journal of Travel Research, 49(2), 139-152.

Todd, S. (2001). Self-concept: a tourism application. Journal of Consumer Behavior, 1(2), 184–96.

Uysal, M., Gahan, L., & Martin, B. (1993). An examination of event motivations: a case study. Festival Management & Event Tourism, 1(1), 5-10.

Uysal, M., & Hagan, L. R. (1993). Motivation of pleasure to travel and tourism. In M. A. Khan, M. D. Olsen, & T. Var (Eds.), VNR’s encyclopedia of hospitality and tourism (pp. 798–810). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Wesley, S., LeHew, M., & Woodside, A.G. (2006). Consumer decision-making styles and mall shopping behavior: building theory using exploratory data analysis and the comparative method. Journal of Business Research, 59(5), 535–548.

Wind, J. (1971). Life style analysis: A new approach. In F. C. Allvine (Ed.), Marketing in Motion (pp. 302–305). Chicago: American Marketing Association (Apr. 1971).

Zhou, J.X., Arnold, M.J., Pereira, A., Yu, J., (2010). Chinese consumer decision-making styles: a comparison between the coastal and inland regions, Journal of Business Research, 63(1), 45–51.

DOI: 10.6092/issn.2036-5195/8524


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Mohamad Nematpour, Mohammad Ghaffari

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.