Central and Eastern Europe as a Medical Tourism Destination: a Case Study of Poland
Keywords:Medical associations, Medical services, Medical tourism, Central and Eastern Europe, Poland
The medical tourism has been changing the healthcare scene especially in the developing countries which offer a combination of low costs for medical services and experienced medical personnel. It gives them the potential to become a target of choice for medical tourists. Therefore, the aim of the paper is verification of Central and Eastern Europe as a medical tourism destination (MTD). Research were conducted in the light of primary and secondary research. Survey data were collected from 282 German and British tourists, using a self-administered questionnaire. The results indicated that the medical associations are most frequently chosen associations with Poland. The MTD associations are able to develop marketing strategies for medical tourism entities and destination management organisations.
Abubakar, A. M. (2016). Does eWOM influence destination trust and travel intention: a medical tourism perspective. Economic Research-Ekonomska Istrazivanja, 29(1), 598-611. https://doi.org/10.1080/1331677X.2016.1189841
Baloglu, S., and McCleary, K. W. (1999). A model of destination image formation. Annals of Tourism Research, 4, 868-897.
Bookman, M. Z., and Bookman, K. R. (2007). Medical tourism in developing countries. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Borek, E. (2013). Medical tourism in Europe and in Poland – present status, development bariers, perspectives and recemendations concerning the development of medical tourism in Poland. Zdrowie Publiczne i Zarządzanie, 11, 333-348. https://doi.org/10.4467/20842627OZ.14.033.2172
Chew, Y. T., and Koeshendro, A. D. (2015). Identifying research gaps in medical tourism. In M. Kozak, N. Kozak (Eds.), Destination marketing: An international perspective (pp. 119-125). London: Taylor & Francis.
Connell, J. (2013). Contemporary medical tourism: Conceptualisation, culture and commodification. Tourism Management, 34, 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2012.05.009
Connell, J. (2016). Reducing the scale? From global images to border crossings in medical tourism. Global Networks, 16, 531-550. https://doi.org/10.1111/glob.12136
Crooks, V. A., Turner, L., Snyder, J., Johnston, R., and Kingsbury, P. (2011). Promoting medical tourism to India: Messages, images, and the marketing of international patient travel. Social Science & Medicine, 72, 726-732. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.12.022
Das, G., and Mukherjee, S. (2016). A measure of medical tourism destination brand equity. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, 10, 104-128. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJPHM-04-2015-0015
de la Hoz-Correa, A., Muñoz-Leiva, F., and Bakucz, M. (2018). Past themes and future trends in medical tourism research: A co-word analysis, Tourism Management, 65, 200-211.
Dryglas, D. (2018). Designing a health tourism product structure model in the process of marketing management. Warsaw: PWN.
Dryglas, D., and Salamaga, M. (2017). Applying destination attribute segmentation to health tourists: A case study of Polish spa resorts. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 34, 503-514. https://doi.org/10.1080/10548408.2016.1193102
Dryglas, D., and Salamaga, M. (2018). Segmentation by push motives in health tourism destinations: A case study of Polish spa resorts. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 9, 234-246. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdmm.2018.01.008
Fetscherin, M., and Stephano, R. M. (2016). The medical tourism index: Scale development and validation. Tourism Management, 52, 539-556. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2015.08.010
Frederick, J. R., and Gan, L. L. (2015). East–West differences among medical tourism facilitators’ websites. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 4, 98-109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdmm.2015.03.002
Ganguli, S., and Ebrahim, A. H. (2017). A qualitative analysis of Singapore’s medical tourism competitiveness. Tourism Management Perspectives, 21, 74-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2016.12.002
Ghanbari, S., Hajinejad, A., and Rahmani, P. (2014). Formulating strategic plan of medical tourism development. International Journal of Travel Medicine and Global Health, 2(4), 149-154.
Ghose, K. (2010). Hospitality in and out of the hospitals. Creating and maintaining brand equity for medical tourism destination brands (MTD’s). Romanian Journal of Marketing, 1, 114-131.
Gross, D. L. (2012). Medical Tourism: India, Thailand, and Singapore. Retrieved Jun. 25, 2015 from www.calhospital.org/sites/main/files/file-attachments/walter-sullivan-award-dan-gross-7-12.pdf
Guiry, M., and Vequist IV, D. G. (2015). South Korea’s medical tourism destination brand personality and the influence of personal values. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 20, 563-584. https://doi.org/10.1080/10941665.2014.904804
Hemdi, M. A., Hassan, N. A., Aminuddin, N., and Adanan, A. (2016). Medical tourism destination choice: A proposition and research agenda. In S. A. Jamal, S. M. Radzi, N. Sumarjan, C. T. Chik, M. F. S. Bakhtiar (Eds.), Innovation and Best Practices in Hospitality and Tourism Research (pp. 185-188). London: Taylor & Francis Group.
Hudson, S., and Li, X. (2012). Domestic medical tourism: A neglected dimension of medical tourism research. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 21, 227-246.
Idrus, S., Musa, R., Naziman, Y. H. N. M., Aznan, N. F. M., Othman, A. Y., and Pauzi, N. M. (2012). Medical tourism destination brand positioning model. In A. Zainal, S. M. Radzi, R. Hashim, C. T. Chik, R. Abu (Eds.), Current Issues in Hospitality and Tourism Research and Innovations. Proceedings of the International Hospitality and Tourism Conference, IHTC 2012 (pp. 515-518). Boca Raton: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group.
Johnston, R., Crooks, V. A., Cerón, A., Labonté, R., Snyder, J., Núñez, E. O., and Flores, W. G. (2016). Providers’ perspectives on inbound medical tourism in Central America and the Caribbean: factors driving and inhibiting sector development and their health equity implications. Global Health Action, 9. https://doi.org/10.3402/gha.v9.32760
Junio, M. M. V., Kim, J. H., and Lee, T. J. (2017). Competitiveness attributes of a medical tourism destination: The case of South Korea with importance-performance analysis. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 34, 444-460. https://doi.org/10.1080/10548408.2016.1182454
Khan, M. J., Chelliah, S., and Haron, M. S. (2016a). International patients’ travel decision making process – a conceptual framework. Iranian Journal of Public Health, 45, 134-145.
Khan, M. J., Chelliah, S., and Haron, M. S. (2016b). Medical tourism destination image formation process: A conceptual model. International Journal of Healthcare Management, 9, 134-143. https://doi.org/10.1080/20479700.2016.1142046
Khan, M. J., Chelliah, S., Haron, M. S., and Ahmed, S. (2017). Role of travel motivations, perceived and travel constraints on destination image and visit intention in medical tourism. Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, 17, e11-e17. https://doi.org/10.18295/squmj.2016.17.01.003
Kiryluk, H., and Glińska, E. (2015). Creation and evaluation of the tourist image of a country – the example of Poland. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 213, 671-676.
Kiss, K. (2015). The challenges of developing health tourism in the Balkans. Tourism, 63, 97-110.
Kovacs, E., and Szocska, G. (2013). ‘Vacation for your teeth’ – dental tourists in Hungary from the perspective of Hungarian dentists. British Dental Journal, 215, 415-418.
Labonté, R., Runnels, V., Crooks, V. A., Johnston, R., and Snyder, J. (2017). What does the development of medical tourism in Barbados hold for health equity? an exploratory qualitative case study. Global Health Research and Policy, 2, 5. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41256-017-0025-z
Lu, H.-Y., and Wu, W.-Y. (2015). Factors associated with medical travel behaviours: the input–process–output perspective. Current Issues in Tourism, 21(3), 243-258. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2015.1072503
Lubowiecki-Vikuk, A. (2016). Participation in medical tourism versus physical activity of patients after liposuction: What are the concerns about health and quality of life? Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research, 69(1), 29-42. https://dx.doi.org/10.1515/pcssr-2015-0027
Lubowiecki-Vikuk, A. (2018). Consumption of dental services: Medical tourism in CEE. European Journal of Service Management, 27/1(3), 135-142. https://dx.doi.org/10.18276/ejsm.2018.27/1-16
Lubowiecki-Vikuk, A., and Dryglas, D. (2019). Medical tourism services and medical tourism destinations in Central and Eastern Europe – the opinion of Britons and Germans. Economic Research-Ekonomska Istrazivanja, 32(1), 1256-1274. https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1331677X.2019.1627892
Lubowiecki-Vikuk, A., and Kurkowiak, J. (2017). Medical tourism potential of Central and Eastern Europe: Attempt at classification. CBU International Conference Proceedings, 5, 286-293. https://doi.org/10.12955/cbup.v5.940
Lubowiecki-Vikuk, A., and Rab-Przybyłowicz, J. (2015). Wybrane aspekty funkcjonowania rynku turystyki medycznej w Polsce. Folia Turistica, 34, 85-107.
Lunt, N., and Carrera, P. (2010). Medical tourism: Assessing the evidence on treatment abroad. Maturitas, 66, 27-32.
Lunt, N., Smith, R. D., Mannion, R., Green, S. T., Exworthy, M., Hanefeld, J., and et al. (2014). Implications for the NHS of inward and outward medical tourism: A policy and economic analysis using literature review and mixed-methods approaches. Health Services and Delivery Research, 2. https://doi.org/10.3310/hsdr02020
Loureiro, S. M. C. (2015). Medical tourists’ emotional and cognitive response to credibility and servicescape. Current Issues in Tourism, 20(15), 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2015.1050363
Maguire, A., Bussmann, S., Meier zu Köcker, C., E Verra, S., Lavinia Giurgi, A., and Ruggeri, K. (2016). Raising concern about the information provided on medical travel agency websites: A place for policy. Health Policy and Technology, 5, 414-422. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hlpt.2016.07.001
Mathijsen, A. (2019). Home, sweet home? Understanding diasporic medical tourism behaviour. Exploratory research of Polish immigrants in Belgium. Tourism Management. 72, 373-385. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2018.12.009
Michalkó, G., Rátz, T., and Hinek M. (2012). Spatial differences in Hungarian medical tourism supply based on service providers’ online presence. Hungarian Geographical Bulletin, 61(1), 31-47.
Moghavvemi, S., Ormond, M., Musa, G., Isa, Ch. R. M., Thirumoorthi, T., Mustapha, M. Z. B., and Kanapathy, K. A. P. (2017). Connecting with prospective medical tourists online: A cross-sectional analysis of private hospital websites promoting medical tourism in India, Malaysia and Thailand. Tourism Management, 58, 154-163. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2016.10.010
Musa, G., Thirumoorthi, T., and Doshi, D. (2012). Travel behaviour among inbound medical tourists in Kuala Lumpur. Current Issues in Tourism, 15, 525-543. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2011.626847
Patients Beyond Borders (2019). Medical tourism statistics & facts. Retrieved Apr. 10, 2019 from www.patientsbeyondborders.com/medical-tourism-statistics-facts
Pollard, K. (2012). How can we measure a destination’s attractiveness? Retrieved Mar. 15, 2019 from https://www.imtj.com/blog/how-can-we-measure-destinations-attractiveness/
PTO (2016). Analiza rynków – promocja usług prozdrowotnych. Retrieved Jun. 25, 2017 from http://pot.gov.pl/6-4fundusze-ue/l/program-promocji-uslug-prozdrowotnych/koncepcja-programu-promocji-uslug-prozdrowotnych
Rab-Przybyłowicz, J. (2014). Produkt turystyki medycznej. Warszawa: Difin.
Sandberg, D. S. (2017). Medical tourism: An emerging global healthcare industry. International Journal of Healthcare Management, 10(4), 281-288.
Schmied, D., and Ransberger, M. (2013). Health tourism, rurality and rural development case studies on the example of Františkovy Lázně (Czech Republic) and of Neualbenreuth (Germany). European Researcher, 12-1, 2800-2814. https://doi.org/10.13187/ISDN.2219-8229
Smith, M., Puczkó, L., Michalkó, G., Kiss, K., and Sziva, I. (2016). Balkan wellbeing and health tourism study. Final Report. Budapest: Metropolitan University. Retrieved Nov. 1, 2017 from http://infota.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/BalkanWellbeingFINALREPORT.pdf
Sobo, E. J., Herlihy, E., and Bicker, M. (2011). Selling medical travel to US patient-consumers: the cultural appeal of website marketing messages. Anthropology & Medicine, 18, 119-136. https://doi.org/10.1080/13648470.2010.525877
Treatment Abroad (2016). Compare the cost of treatment abroad. Retrieved Aug. 24, 2016 from http://www.treatmentabroad.com/costs
Wisla, R., and Sierotowicz, T. (2016). Medical technological specializations of Central and Eastern European regions. Economics and Sociology, 9, 195-209. https://doi.org/10.14254/2071-789X.2016/9-3/17
Youngman, I. (2016). Medical tourism research: Facts and figures 2016. Retrieved Aug. 20, 2017 from https://www.imtj.com/resources/medical-tourism-research-facts-and-figures-2016/
Yu, J. Y., and Ko, T. G. (2012). A cross-cultural study of perceptions of medical tourism among Chinese, Japanese and Korean tourists in Korea. Tourism Management, 33, 80-88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2011.02.002
Zając, J. M., and Batorski, D. (2009). Methods of increasing maneuverability in the internet research. In A. Haber, M. Szałas (Eds.), Evaluation to the challenges facing the public finance sector (pp. 129-147). Warsaw: PARP.
Zhang, J., Seo, S., and Lee, H. (2013). The impact of psychological distance on Chinese customers when selecting an international healthcare service country. Tourism Management, 35, 32-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2012.05.007
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2019 Adrian Lubowiecki-Vikuk, Diana Dryglas
Copyrights and publishing rights of all the texts on this journal belong to the respective authors without restrictions.
This journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License (full legal code).
See also our Open Access Policy.