Positive aging, Positive Psychology and Tourism. A challenging new area of investigation?
Keywords:Positive Aging, Positive Psychology, Senior Tourism, Well-Being, Positive Functioning
The article examines the issue of positive aging and how it can be improved through traveling and environment exploration. Moving from the most relevant contemporary theoretical perspectives on positive aging, the first part of the article focuses the attention on the conceptualization of successful aging, and examines the theoretical basis that could support the thesis that traveling can be viewed as an hallmark of this condition. The second part of the article takes into consideration a recent new area of psychological science, the Positive Psychology, trying to briefly examine the potential of the “well-being approach” for reaching a positive aging also through the tourist activity.
Ainsworth, M.D.S., Blehar, M.C., Waters, E., & Wall. S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Antonelli, E.(2000). Il benessere soggettivo nella prospettiva psicosociale: Una rassegna. Giornale Italiano di Psicologia, 1, 57-116. DOI: 10.1421/24080
Aristotle, (2011). Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Beck, U. (1992). Risky society. Toward a new modernity. Sage Publications.
Berke, P.R. (2002). Does sustainable development offer a new direction for planning? Challenges for the twenty-first century. Journal of Planning Literature, 17(1), 21-36.
Bowlby, J. (1988). A secure base: Parent-child attachment and healthy human development. New York: Basic Books.
Bramwell, B. (2009). Economic cycles, times of change and sustainable tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 1, 1-4. Doi/abs/10.1080/09669580802608061
Carmi, N. (2012). Caring about tomorrow: future orientation, environmental attitudes and behaviors. Environmental Education Research, 4, 430-444.
Caro, F. G., Bass, S. A., & Chen, Y.-P. (1993). Introduction: Achieving a productive aging society. In S. A. Bass, F. G. Caro, & Y.-P. Chen (Eds.), Achieving a productive aging society (pp. 3–26). Westport, Connecticut: Auburn House.
Carstensen, L.L., & Lang, F.R.(2002). Time counts: future time perspective, goals and social relationships. Psychology and Aging, 1, 125-139.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2008). Facilitating optimal motivation and psychological well-being across life’s domains. Canadian Psychology, 49, 14–23.
Diener, E., Sapyta, J.J., & Suh, E. (1998). Subjective well-being is essential to well-being. Psychological Inquiry, 9, 33–37.
Diener, E., Suh, E.M., Lucas, R.E., & Smith, H.L. (1999). Subjective well-being: Three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin, 12, 276-302.
Engel, G.L. (1977). The need for a New Medical Model: a Challenge for Biomedicine. Science, 196, 129-136.
EUROSTAT. ( 2016). Population structure and aging. Ec.europa.eu//Eurostat.
Friedman, E.M. (2012). Well-being, Aging and Immunity. The Oxford Handbook of Psychoneuroimmunology (Suzanne Segestrom ed.).
Green, D.J., & Campbell, W.K. (2000). Attachment and exploration in adults: Chronic and Contextual Accessibility. PSBP, 4, 452-461.
Hahoda, M. (1958). Current concepts of positive mental health. Joint commission on mental health and illness monograph series. Vol 1. New York, NY, US: Basic Books.
Hallab, Z. (2006). Catering to the healthy-living vacationer. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 12(1), 71-91.
Havigurst, R.(1953). Human development and education. New York: Longmans Green.
Heckhausen, J., Wrosh, C., & Schulz, R.(2010). A Motivational Theory of Life-span Development. Psychological Review, 1,32-60. DOI: 10.1037/a0017668.
Holwerda, A.T., Beekman, D.J., Deeg, M., Stek, M.L., van Tilburg, T.G., Visser, P.J., Schmand, B., Jonker, C., & Schoevers, R.A. (2012). Increased risk of mortality associated with social isolation in old men: only feeling lonely? Results from the Amsterdam Study of the Elderly (AMSTEL). Psychological Medicine, 42, 843-853.
Hsu, H.C., Cai, L., & Wong, K.K.F. (2007). A model of senior tourism motivation. Anecdotes from Beijing and Shangai. Tourism Management, 28, 1262-1273.
Hunter, C. (1997). Sustainable tourism as an adaptive paradigm. Annals of Tourism Research, 24, 850-867.
Jung, C.G. (1933). Modern Man in Search of a Soul. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co.
Kahana, E., Kahana, B., & Lee, J.E. (2014). Proactive approaches to successful aging: one clear path through the forest. Gerontology, 60, 466-474.
Kahana, E., Kahana, B., & Zjiang, J. (2005). Motivational antecedents of preventive proactivity in late life: Linking future orientation and exercise. Motivation and Emotion, 29, 443-464.
Kahneman D., Diener, E., & Schwarz, N (eds).(1999).Well-Being: The Foundations of Hedonic Psychology. New York: Sage Found.
Keyes, C.L.M. (1998). Social Well-Being. Social Psychology Quarterly, 61, 121-140.
Keyes, C.L.M. (2007). Promoting and protecting mental health as flourishing: a complementary strategy for improving national mental health. American Psychologist, 2, 95-108. DOI. Org/10.1037/0003-066X.62.2.95.
Keyes, C.L.M. (2002). The mental health continuum: From languishing to flourishing in life. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 43, 207–222.
Kubovy, M. (1999). On the pleasures of the mind. In D. Kahneman, E. Diener & N. Schwarz (Eds.), Well-being: Foundations of Hedonic Psychology (pp. 134-154). Russell Sage Foundation.
Liu, K. (2013). Happiness and Tourism. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 4, 67-70.
Maslow, A. H. (1968). Toward a Psychology of Being. Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand.
Millar, J.S., & Hull, C. (1997). Measuring Human Wellness. Social Indicator Research, 40, 147-158.
Nawijn, J. (2010). The holiday happiness curve: A preliminary investigation into mood during a holiday abroad. International Journal of Tourism Research, 12(3), 281-290.
Nawijn, J. (2011). Happiness through Vacationing: Just a Temporary Boost or Long-Term Benefits? Journal of Happiness Studies, 12(4), 651-665
Patuelli, R., & Nijkamp, O. (2016). Travel motivation of seniors: A review and a meta-analytical assessment. Tourism Economics, 4, 847-862.
Rogers, K. (1962).The interpersonal relationships: The core of guidance. Harvard Educational Review, 4, 416-429.
Rowe, J.W., & Kahn, R. (1997). Successful Aging. The Gerontologist, 37, 433-440. doi: 10.1093/geront/37.4.433.
Ryan, R. M., Huta, V., & Deci, E. l. (2008). Living Well: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective on Eudaimonia. Journal of Happiness Studies, 9 (1), pp. 139-70.
Ryan, R.M., & Deci, E.L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68–78.
Ryan, R.M., & Deci, E.L. (2008). Self- Determination Theory: a Macrotheory of Human Motivation, Development and Health. Canadian Psychology, 3, 182-185. DOI: 10.1037/a001280.
Ryff, C.D. (1982). Successful Aging: a developmental approach. The Gerontologist, 22, 209-214.
Ryff, C.D. (1989). Beyond Ponce del Leon and life satisfaction: new directions in quest of successful aging. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 1, 35-55. doi: 10.1177/016502548901200102.
Ryff, C.D. (2014). Psychological well-being revisited: Advances in the science and practice of eudaimonia. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 83, 10-28. DOI:10.1159/000353263.
Ryff, C.D., & C.L.M. Keyes, C.L.M. (1995).The structure of psychological well-being revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69 (4), 719–727.
Ryff, C.D., & Singer, B.H.( 2008). Know thyself and become who you are. A eudaimonic approach to psychological well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 9, 13-39. DOI 10.1007/s10902-006-9019-0.
Ryff, C.D., & Singer, B.H.(2008). Know thyself and become what you are: a eudaimonic approach to psychological well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 9, 13-39.
Saribay, S.A., & Andersen, S.M. (2007). Are past relationships at the heart of attachment dynamics? What love has to do with it. Psychological Inquiry, 183-191.
Seligman, M., & Csikszentmiahlyi, M. (2000). Positive Psychology. American Psychologist, 55, 5-14.
Sheldon, K., & King, L. (2001). Why Positive Psychology is necessary. American Psychologist, 3, 216-217.
W.H.O. (1992), Report of Meeting on Quality of Life, Geneva (http://www.who.int).
W.H.O. (2016). Ageing. Geneva (http://www.who.int).
Zambianchi, M. (2013). L’invecchiamento ottimale. Una Rassegna sui principali modelli teorici e sulle strategie in grado di promuoverlo. Ricerche di Psicologia (Research in Psychology), 1, 9-43. DOI: 10.3280/RIP2013-01001.
Zambianchi, M. (2014). Self- realization in old age. A study on personal projects and proactive coping strategies. Ricerche di Psicologia (Research in Psychology), 3, 391-409.DOI: 10.3280/RIP2014-003001.
Zambianchi, M. (2016). Time perspective and personal projects in old age. Ricerche di Psicologia (Research in Psychology), 4, 475-496. DOI:10.3280/RIP2016-004002.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2017 Manuela Zambianchi
Copyrights and publishing rights of all the texts on this journal belong to the respective authors without restrictions.
This journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License (full legal code).
See also our Open Access Policy.