On the Trail of Joan of Arc


  • Linda Joyce Forristal Drexel University




Joan of Arc, Tourism Routes, Heritage Tourism, Iconic Figures, Actor Network Theory, Site Sacralization Theory


The year 2012 marked the 600th anniversary of the birthday of Joan of Arc (Fr., Jeanne d’Arc) (1412–1431). Tributes to this national heroine can be found all over France. There are literally countless statues, streets and restaurants named after her and many sites dedicated to her life. However, despite widespread social and mechanical reproduction and cultural naming in relation to the Maid of Orléans, there is no official network or integrated signage in France to promote cultural heritage tourism to the numerous Joan of Arc sites and festivals, even though her life and death, by any measure, were seminal events in the country’s history. Unfortunately, the pilgrim who wants to follow or intersect with Joan of Arc’s trail through France, for cultural, historical or religious reasons, must do so without much help. Using Actor Network Theory and Site Sacralization Theory as framing devices, this paper explores human actors and tangible and intangible non-human factors that may have contributed to the lack of a unified tourism product despite the existence of an adequate Joan of Arc tourismscape. Insights gleaned from this research include Joan’s conflicted status as both/either saint and/or patriot, the existence of no cooperation or linkage between Joan of Arc sites, and cautious French tourism development policies. Several possible scenarios are suggested as suitable means to help implement or foster the creation of an on-the-ground or virtual Joan of Arc trail or tour.


Becker, E. (2013). Overbooked: the exploding business of travel and tourism. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Bramwell, B. (2005). Actors, Networks and Tourism Policies. In D. Buhalis & C. Costa (Eds.) Tourism Management Dynamics Trends, Management and Tools (pp. 155–163). Oxford: Elsevier.

Clark, I. D. (2002). The ebb and flow of tourism at Lal Lal Falls, Victoria: A tourism history of a sacred aboriginal site. Australian Aboriginal Studies, 2, 45–53.

Clark, I. D. (2009). Naming sites: Names as management tools in indigenous tourism sites – An Australian case study. Tourism Management, 30(1), 109-111.

Davies, P. (1997). The National Front in France: Ideology, Discourse and Power. London: Routledge.

Duim, R. (2007). Tourismscapes: An actor-network perspective. Annals of Tourism Research, 34(4), 961-976.

Duim, R. & Caalders, J. (2008). Tourism Chains and Pro-poor Tourism Development: An Actor-Network Analysis of a Pilot Project in Costa Rica. Current Issues in Tourism, 11(2), 109-125.

Duim, R., Ren, C., & Jóhannesson, G.T. (2012). Actor network theory and tourism: Ordering, materiality and multiplicity. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.

Forristal, L. J., Marsh, D. G., & Lehto, X. Y. (2011). Revisiting MacCannell's site sacralization theory as an analytical tool: Historic Prophetstown as a case study. International Journal of Tourism Research, 13(6), 570-582.

Goffman E. 1974. Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience. Harvard University Press: Cambridge, MA.

Gormley, L. (2007). The Hundred Years War: Overview. Retrieved May 26, 2012 from http://ehistory.osu.edu/osu/archive/hundredyearswar.cfm

Gourevitch, P. (1997). The Unthinkable: How dangerous is Le Pen's National Front? The New Yorker, 73(10), 110–114; 139–143; 147–149.

Gunn, C.A. (1972). Vacationscape: Designing tourist regions. Austin: University of Texas.

Hobbins, D. (2005). The trial of Joan of Arc. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.

Hooper, K., & Kearins, K. (2007). Looking for Joan of Arc: Collaboration in the Rise and Fall of Heroes. Culture and Organization, 13(4), 297–312.

Jacobsen, J. K. S. (1997). The making of an attraction: The case of North Cape. Annals of Tourism Research, 24(2), 341-356.

Jóhannesson, G. T. (2005). Tourism translations: Actor Network Theory and tourism research. Tourist Studies, 5(2), 133-150.

Kilgore, J. (2009). “Joan of Arc as Propaganda Motif from the Dreyfus Affair to the Second World War,” Revue LISA / LISA e-journal, Vol. 6, No. 11, pp. 279- 296.Retrieved July 14, 2012 from http://lisa.revues.org/519

Latour, B. (1996). On actor-network theory, Soziale Welt, 47(4): 369–381. Retrieved April 14, 2012 from www.cours.fse.ulaval.ca/edc-65804/latour-clarifications.pdf

Latour, B. (1999). On recalling ANT. In J. Law and J. Hassard (Eds.) Actor Network Theory and After (pp. 15-25). Oxford: Blackwell.

Leiper, N. (1990). Tourist attraction systems. Annals of Tourism Research, 17(3), 367-384.

L’Express (January 6, 2012). Hommage de Sarkozy à Jeanne d'Arc, “résistante” face aux épreuves. Retrieved May 26, 2012 from http://www.lexpress.fr/actualites/1/actualite/hommage-de-sarkozy-a-jeanne- d-arc-resistance-face-aux-epreuves_1068844.html

MacCannell, D. (1976). The tourist: a new theory of the leisure class. New York: Schocken Books.

Margolis, N. (1990). Joan of Arc in history, literature, and film: a select, annotated bibliography. New York: Garland Publishing.

Margolis, N. (2010). The Virgin Warrior: The Life and Death of Joan of Arc. The Catholic Historical Review, 96(4), 801–802.

Paget, E., Dimanche, F. d. r., & Mounet, J.-P. (2010). A tourism innovation case: An Actor-Network Approach. Annals of Tourism Research, 37(3), 828-847.

Pearce, P. L., Morrison, A. M., & Moscardo, G. M. (2003). Individuals as Tourist Icons: A Developmental and Marketing Analysis. Journal of Hospitality & Leisure Marketing, 10(1/2), 63.

Pernoud, R., & Clin, M. V. (1998). Joan of Arc. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Quicherat, J.-É. (1841–1849). Procès de condamnation et de réhabilitation de Jeanne d'Arc, dite la Pucelle: publiés pour la première fois d'après les manuscrits de la Bibliothèque royale, suivis de tous les documents historiques qu'on a pu réunir et accompagnés de notes et d'éclaircissements Paris: Jules Renouard.

Sheller. M. & Urry, J. Eds. (2004). Tourism mobilities: Places to play, places in play. London: Routledge.

Slade, P. (2003). Gallipoli thanatourism: The Meaning of ANZAC. Annals of Tourism Research, 30(4), 779-794.

Smith, V. L. (1977). Hosts and guests: the anthropology of tourism. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Smith, V. L. (1989). Hosts and guests: the anthropology of tourism (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Twain, M. (1899). Personal recollections of Joan of Arc. New York and London: Harper & Brothers.

Winock, M. (1992). Jeanne d'Arc. In P. Nora (Ed.), Les Lieux de Mémoire: De l'archive à l'emblème, Volume 3 (pp. 674-735). Paris: Gallimard.

Wheeler, B., & Wood, C. T. (Eds.). (1996). Fresh verdicts on Joan of Arc. New York: Garland Publishing.

Urry, J. (2002). The tourist gaze: Leisure and travel in contemporary societies (2nd edition). London: Sage Publications.




How to Cite

Joyce Forristal, L. (2013). On the Trail of Joan of Arc. Almatourism - Journal of Tourism, Culture and Territorial Development, 4(8), 45–60. https://doi.org/10.6092/issn.2036-5195/4060