A Structural Equation Modelling for Crm Development in Rural Tourism in the Catalan Pyrenees


  • José Mª Prat Forga Autonomous University of Barcelona




rural tourism, customer relationship management, teleworkers, structural equation modelling, Catalonia


This paper investigates the interrelationships between customer relationship management development in rural tourism, information and communication technologies level in the territory, perceived economic impacts and rural tourism development. A total of 76 respondents completed a survey conducted in the Spanish Pyrenees Mountains in order to examine the structural effects of these impact factors. The results reveal that the support for customer relationship management development in rural tourism shown by rural tourism workers mainly depends on the level of development of information and communication technologies. A confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling procedure were performed, respectively, using the AMOS software.


Albaladejo, I.P. & Díaz, M.T. (2009). "Tourist preferences for rural house stays: Evidence from discrete choice modelling in Spain". Tourism Management, 30 (6), pp. 805-811.

Andrés, J.L. (2000). "Aportaciones básicas del turismo al desarrollo rural". Cuadernos de Turismo, 6, pp. 45-60.

Barrett, P. (2007). "Structural equation modelling: adjudging model fit". Personality and Individual Differences, 42, pp. 815–824.

Bentler, P.M. (1990). "Comparative fit indexes in structural models". Psychological Bulletin, 107, pp. 238-246.

Bentler, P.M. & Bonett, D.G. (1980). "Significance tests and goodness-of-fit in the analysis of covariance structures". Psychological Bulletin, 88, pp. 588-600.

Besteiro, B. (2006). "El turismo rural en Galicia. Análisis de su evolución en la última década". Cuadernos de Turismo, 17, pp. 25-49.

Bigné, J.E. (2004). "Nuevas orientaciones del marketing turístico, de la imagen de destinos a la fidelización de los turistas". Papeles de Economía Española, 102, pp. 221-235.

Browne, M.W. & Cudock, R. (1993). "Alternative ways of assessing model fit". In K.A. Bollen & J.S. Long (eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 136-162). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Burgess, J. (1992). "The art of interviewing". In A. Rogers, H.Viles & A. Goudie (eds.), The Studentis Companion to Geography. Oxford: Blackwell.

Burrows, R. & Curran, J. (1989). "Sociological research on service sector small business: Some conceptual considerations". Work Employment and Society, 3(4), pp. 527-539.

Cànoves, G. & Villarino, M. (2002). "Roural tourism, gender, and cultural conservation in Spain and Portugal". In M. Swain, B. Henshall & J. Momsen (eds.), Gender/Tourism/Fun (pp. 90-102). New York: Cognizant.

Cánoves, G., Herrera, L. & Blanco, A. (2005). "Turismo rural en España: un análisis de la evolución en el contexto europeo". Cuadernos de Geografía, 77, pp. 41-58.

Cawley, M. & Gillmor, D.A. (2008). "Turismo rural integrado. Teoría y práctica." Annals of Tourism Research en Español, 10(1), pp. 73-97.

Clark, M.A. (2000). Teleworking in the Countryside. Aldershot. Hampshire (UK): Ashgate.

Clarke, J. (1999). "Marketing structures for farm tourism: beyond the individual provider of rural tourism". Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 7(1), 26-47.

Cloke, P., Goodwin, M., & Milbourne, P. (1997). Rural Wales: Community and Marginalisation. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.

Creswell, J.W. (2008). Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Crosby, A. & Daries, J.O. (Eds.) (1993). Desarrollo turístico sostenible en el medio rural. Madrid: Centro Europeo de Formación Ambiental y Turística.

Diamantis, D. (1998). "Consumer Behavior and ecotourism products". Annals of Tourism Research, 25 (2), 5pp. 15-528.

Fleischer, A. & Felsenstein, D. (2000). "Support for rural tourism: Does it make a difference?". Annals of Tourism Research, 27(4), pp. 1007-1024.

Fuentes, R. (1995). "Análisis de las principales características del turismo rural en España". Estudios Turísticos, 127, pp. 19-52.

García, J.L. (1996). "El turismo rural como factor diversificador de rentas en la tradicional economía agraria". Estudios Turísticos, 132, pp. 45-60.

García-Henche, B. (2003). Marketing del Turismo Rural. Madrid: Pirámide.

Gerbing, D.W. & Anderson, J.C. (1993). "Monte Carlo evaluations of goodness-of-fit indices for structural equation models". In K.A. Bollen, & J.S. Long (eds.), Testing structural equation models. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Gilbert, D. (1989). "Rural tourism and marketing. Syntesis and new ways of working". Tourism Management, 1989, pp. 39-50.

Greenberg, P. (2003). Las claves de CRM. Gestión de relaciones con los clientes. Madrid: McGrawHill.

Gursoy, D., Jurowski, C., & Uysal, M. (2002). "Resident attitudes: a structural modeling approach". Annals of Tourism Research, 29(1), pp. 79–105.

Gursoy, D. & Rutherford, D.G. (2004). "Host attitudes toward tourism: an improved structural model". Annals of Tourism ResearchI, 31(3), pp. 495–516.

Hair, J.F. Jr., Anderson, R.E., Tatham, R.L., & Black, W.C. (2006). Multivariate Data Analysis. New York: Macmilan.

Hayduk, L., Cummings, G.G., Boadu, K., Pazderka-Robinson, H., & Boulianne, S. (2007). "Testing! Testing! One, two three – Testing the theory in structural equation models!". Personality and Individual Differences, 42, pp. 41-50.

Hu, L. & Bentler, P.M. (1999). "Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives". Structural Equation Modeling, 6, pp. 1-55.

Hu, L. T. & Bentler, P. (1995). "Evaluating model fit". In R H. Hoyle (Ed.), Structural Equation Modeling. Concepts, Issues, and Applications (pp. 76-99). London: Sage.

Isaksson, R. & Garvare, R. (2003). "Measuring sustainable development using process models". Managerial Auditing Journal, 18(8), pp. 649–656.

Jackson, D.L., Gillaspy, J.A., Jr. & Purc-Stephenson, R. (2009). "Reporting practices in confirmatory factor analysis: An overview and some recommendations". Psychological Methods, 14, pp. 6–23.

Jöreskog, K.G. & Sörbom, D. (1996). Structural equalion modeling. Workshop presented for the NORC Social Sciences Research Professional Development Training Sessions, Chicago.

Jurowski, C., Uysal, M., & Willams, D.R. (1997). "A theoretical analysis of host community resident reactions to tourism". Journal of Travel Research, 36(2), pp. 3–11.

Keeble, D. (1993). Small firm creation, innovation and growth. In J. Curran & D. Storey (eds.), Small Firms in Urban and Rural Locations. London: Routledge.

Kerlinger, F.N. & H.B.L. (2000). Foundations of Behavioral Research. Holt, NY: Harcourt College Publishers.

Kline, R.B. (1998). Principles and practice ofstrtlctural equation modeling. New York: Guilford Press.

Lankford, S.V. & Howard, D.R. (1994). "Developing a tourism impacts attitude scale". Annals of Tourism Research, 21(1), pp. 121–139.

Loureiro, S.M. & Miranda, F.J. (2008). "The importance of quality satisfaction, trust, and image in relation to rural tourist loyalty". Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 25(2), pp. 117-136.

McCool, S.. F. & Martin, S.. R. (1994). "Community attachment and attitudes toward tourism development". Journal of Travel Research, 32(3), pp. 29–34.

McGehee, N.G., Kim, K., & Jennings, G.R. (2007). "Gender and motivation for agri-tourism entrepreneurship". Tourism Management, 28(1), pp. 280-289.

Middelton, V.T.C. (1990). Marketing in Travel & Tourism. Oxford: Heinemann Professional Publishing.

Oh, H., Kim, B.Y., & Shin, J.H. (2004). "Hospitality and tourism marketing: recent developments in research and future directions". International Journal of Hospitality Management, 23, pp. 425-447.

Petrou, A., Pantziou, E.F., Dimara, E., & Skuras, D. (2007). "Resources and activities complementarities: the role of business networks in the provision of integrated rural tourism". Tourism Geographies, 9(4), pp. 421-440.

Perdue, R.R., Long, P.T., & Allen, L. (1990). "Resident support for tourism development". Annals of Tourism Research, 17, pp. 586–599.

Royo, M. (2009). "Rural-cultural excursion conceptualization: A local tourism marketing management model based on tourist destination image measurement". Tourism Management, 30(3), pp. 419-428.

Santesmases, M. (1999). Marketing Conceptos y Estrategias. Madrid: Ediciones Pirámide.

Sharma, B. & Dyer, P. (2009). "An investigation of differences in residents’ perceptions on the Sunshine Coast: Tourism impacts and demographic variables". Tourism Geographies, 11(2), pp. 187–213

Sharpley, R.; Vass, A. (2006). "Tourism, farming and diversification: An attitudinal study". Tourism Management, 27(5), pp. 1040-1052.

Sivo, S.A.; Fan, X.; Witta, E.L., & Willse, J.T. (2006). "The Search for optimal cutoff properties: Fit index criteria in structural equation modeling". The Journal of Experimental Education, 74, pp. 267–288.

Tanaka, J.S. (1993). "Multifaceted conceptions of fit in structural equation models". In K.A. Bollen, & J.S. Long (eds.), Testing structural equation models. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Werthner, H. & Klein, S. (1999). Information Technology and Tourism. A Challenging Relationship. Vienna: Springer-Verlag.

Yagüe, R.M. (2002). "Rural tourism in Spain". Annals of Tourism Research, 29(4), pp. 1101-1110.

Yoon,Y., Gursoy, D., & Chen, J. S. (2001). "Validating a tourism development theorywith structural equation modeling". Tourism Management, 22(4), pp. 363–372.




How to Cite

Prat Forga, J. M. (2012). A Structural Equation Modelling for Crm Development in Rural Tourism in the Catalan Pyrenees. Almatourism - Journal of Tourism, Culture and Territorial Development, 3(6), 16–39. https://doi.org/10.6092/issn.2036-5195/3469